There was no fingerprint reader in ancient times. Was the pressed fingerprint really useful?
Author: huifan Time: 2019-12-16
Did fingerprint reader identification also exist in ancient times? Of course! We can also see in the costume dramas that people often sign pictures and press handprints, but sometimes we think of the ancient times that there was no modern high-tech fingerprint recognition technology. So how did the ancients identify the authenticity of the fingerprints? Some people may think that the ancients did not know that "fingerprints are unique", and that is wrong. At that time, due to cultural restrictions, even their own names were not written. Therefore, when signing and drawing, they could only draw a cross or a circle on the paper, even if it was a signature, but because each person painted a cross It is almost the same as the circle, and it is impossible to determine whether the paper was signed by the parties themselves. In order to avoid this, the ancients used fingerprints, which are identifications that everyone has.
In fact, the ancients were also intelligent. Even if many people are illiterate, they will find that everyone's fingerprints and palm prints are different, and this has become a mark of the ancients' own identity. Became a piece of evidence. After signing, press the party's handprint to ensure that there is future basis. So the question is, there was no fingerprint reader in ancient times. Is the pressed fingerprint really useful?
In fact, although there was no fingerprint identification instrument in ancient times, there are still fingerprint identification technologies. According to the literature, there are primary fingerprint identification comparisons in ancient times:
In the Qin Dynasty more than 2,000 years ago, China had a record of cracking fingerprints. In the "Qian Jian Acupoint Stealing" excavated in Yunmeng, Qin Jian recorded: "There are knees, handwriting, knees, and hands everywhere in the inner and outer points." This shows that the Qin Dynasty judicial personnel have used "handwriting" as a method to solve the case and a kind of physical evidence for judicial inspection of the crime scene. The ancient army of China had a "fighting book", that is, registering the fingerprints of soldiers for inspection. This shows that at that time, it was possible to correctly classify fingerprints according to form and structure, and to apply this classification feature and knowledge to social practice.
However, the real rise of the fingerprint identification concept began in the Tang Dynasty. Scholar Jia Gongyan formally proposed this concept, and a story was recorded in the "Fingerprint Identification" published in 1927: On July 12th of Tang Jianzhong, soldier Ma Lingzhi desperately needed two silver, and borrowed 1,000 yuan from the monk Jianying of Baoguo Temple. If the monk Jianying needs it, the principal and interest can be recovered at any time; if Ma Lingzhi cannot be returned, the monk Jianying can take all the property of Ma Lingzhi;
Since then, the habit of using fingerprints and palm models as a reference in documents has been used throughout the texts. The observation and application of fingerprints in ancient times had a profound impact on the development of technology at that time and in modern times. From the Tang Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, as the social atmosphere became more enlightened, the verdicts have begun to pay more attention to the evidence relative to science, and fingerprints have been used as formal criminal physical evidence at that time, and began to affect some judgments. The story of Yuan Zhen using his fingerprint to judge a case.
A typical case of using fingerprints to solve a case is recorded in "Biography of Song History · Yuan Zhen".
During the Reign of Emperor Renzong in the Northern Song Dynasty, a young man named Yongzheng in Yongxin County, Jiangxi Province, was a gambler like a gambler. On one occasion, Zhou Zheng gambled with his strong son, Long Yan, and lost all the silver on his body. After losing the red eye, Zhou Zheng put 15 mu of fertile land belonging to his mother as a bet, and lost again. In desperation, he had to promise to set up a paper for Long Yu. However, the ownership of this 15 acres of land belongs to Zhou Zheng's mother. Therefore, Long Yan requires that the fingerprint printed by Zhou Zheng's mother must be on the paper to count.
Zhou Zheng knew that this 15 acres of land was the mother's lifeblood, and she would not press a fingerprint on her. So, he found a document bearing his mother's handprint on his back at home, and then erased the words on the document, and forged a contract for selling land with Long Ye.
When Long Zheng took the contract with Zhou Zheng's mother to ask for a land, Zhou Zheng's mother disagreed and told Long Xin to Yongxin County. When the county magistrate heard this case, according to the contract of the mother's handprint last week, he ruled that 15 acres of land were owned by Longmao. Zhou Zheng's mother dissatisfied with the verdict, and then she filed a lawsuit against the State Council, but lost the lawsuit for the same reason.
Soon after, Yuan Zhen was appointed as the county magistrate of Yongxin, and Zhou Quan's mother once again filed the case with the county. After learning about Zhou Zheng and Long Zheng's behavior, Yuan Zhen initially thought that Zhou Zheng's mother was likely to be wronged. So, he repeatedly and carefully checked the contract held by Long Mao, and finally found a flaw. He told Long Yue: "Your contract for selling land is forged." Long Yan refused to answer, and asked, "Why can you see it?" Yuan Zhen pointed to the handprint on the contract and said, "The date written on this contract The handwriting is on the handprint, indicating that you must first get the handprint on Zhou Zheng's mother's document and then write the contract. "Long Yan saw that the plot was revealed and had to admit that the handprint on the contract was false. With fake fingerprints as a breakthrough, Yuan Zhen finally returned to the original owner of 15 acres of farmland belonging to Zhou Zheng's mother. This case shows very clearly that during the Northern Song Dynasty, people were able to accurately identify who pressed the fingerprint and how it was pressed, so the fingerprint has become one of the main evidences of civil disputes in China.
In fact, there are many similarities between ancient and modern fingerprint identification. In addition to the initial identification with the naked eye, Yuan Yuan used fingerprint judgment. Yuan Zhen used the order of printed fingerprints and handwriting time to judge. This is modern Fingerprint identification is also a common type of fingerprint identification. The identification time of documents and the identification of Zhu Mo or text sequence are similar types of identification.
In addition, in ancient times, fingerprints were mainly distinguished with the naked eye. Because the texture of the fingerprint is too thin, sometimes the entire hand or the entire foot is printed as evidence. Our fingerprints have a three-dimensional effect because of the unevenness, so that the lines can appear. The raised lines are called mastoid lines, and the places where they are sunken are called small furrows. In the same identification process of the fingerprint, it is completed based on the comprehensive comparison and evaluation of the form, position, relationship, angle and number of the detailed features of its mastoid lines. Even though there were no advanced technical instruments in ancient times, among the obvious different fingerprint patterns, the fingerprints of the same person can still be discerned by the naked eye, which is the most common fingerprint identification method in ancient times.
So in modern society, what are the more advanced ways of fingerprint identification than ancient times?
First, simple traces appear
If fingerprints are left on the surface of glass or plastic lamps that are not similar to water-absorbent objects, you can use simple physical methods of criminal investigation to check fingerprints, such as powder brushing: spray powder with large color difference on the surface of the object to take fingerprints; magnetic powder brushing Method: Use a small magnetic brush dipped in iron to paint the surface of the object to take fingerprints. In addition to these two simpler methods to extract fingerprints, special light source illumination methods and gelatin extraction films are also used to extract fingerprints.
Two, label comparison method
Find the characteristics of the fingerprint, and edit and mark it, such as the start, end, combination, and divergence of the lines, such as the sticks and bridges (characteristic terms) that appear in the lines. Generally, the center of a fingerprint contains about 50 feature points. The positions and directions obtained from these feature points are the basic data for comparison. This step is the entire fingerprint comparison. The most critical step is to determine whether the next screening direction in the collision database is correct. For example, when the fingerprint is under stress, it is likely to be pushed, deformed, and produce false features. If the comparer cannot identify and edits incorrectly, it will be easily led astray. This requires extreme professionalism of the appraiser.
3. Induction technology, distributed penetrating light scanning
When a fingerprint is scanned, infrared light is irradiated around the finger and scattered in the finger. In the raised part of the finger, the image is brighter because the light will directly hit the special mirror surface; on the other hand, in the concave part, the light will be dark because the light will be scattered in the air layer. Then, an infrared sensor captures a fingerprint image projected on a special mirror surface for fingerprint recognition. Compared with the general reflected light method, this technology is less affected by the state of the air layer on the surface of the finger, so whether it is a dry finger or a wet finger, a clear image can be captured.
Fourth, image processing technology
Using a variety of image processing technologies, the clearest fingerprint image is captured. It is a mechanism to automatically adjust parameters according to different image densities to capture high-quality fingerprint images.
Five, NEC fingerprint automatic identification system terminal system
The automatic fingerprint reader identification system is a computer application system that uses computer technology, pattern recognition technology, and network technology to process, store, compare, and assist identification of fingerprint images and related information. The core of the system includes a set of efficient algorithms such as automatic fingerprint classification, positioning, morphological feature extraction, detailed feature extraction and fingerprint comparison, as well as a full-featured supporting subsystem such as fingerprint input, image processing, database management, and fingerprint query. First scan the fingerprint image, then record and edit the fingerprint through the recorder. During the recording process, the fingerprint can be represented by light points, and then the computer will analyze these light points to find the fingerprint with light points. You can automatically identify the object with the fingerprint.
In fact, there are many core technologies for fingerprint identification. Each technology requires that the appraiser has a strong level of professional knowledge and high-level capabilities. The task of fingerprint identification is more complicated than ordinary people think. With the development of science and technology, it will also provide increasingly convenient services for fingerprint identification technology.
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