The access control system is in the field of intelligent buildings, meaning Access Control System, or ACS for short. Refers to the prohibition authority of "door", which is the guard against "door". The "gate" here broadly includes various passages that can pass through, including doors through which people pass, doors through which vehicles pass, and so on. Therefore, access control includes vehicle access control. In parking management applications, vehicle access control is an important means of vehicle management. It does not aim to collect parking fees, but mainly manages the access rights of vehicles.
The entrance and exit security management system is a new modern security management system. It integrates microcomputer automatic identification technology and modern security management measures. It involves many new technologies such as electronics, machinery, optics, computer technology, communication technology, and biotechnology. It is an effective measure to solve the entrance and exit of important departments to realize the safety prevention management. Applicable to various confidential departments, such as banks, hotels, garage management, computer rooms, armory, confidential rooms, office rooms, intelligent communities, factories, etc.
The access control system has already surpassed the simple doorway and key management, and it has gradually developed into a complete access management system. It plays a large role in administrative work such as work environment safety, personnel attendance management and so on.
The access control system, as the name implies, is a system that controls the entrance and exit channels. It is developed on the basis of traditional door locks. The traditional mechanical door lock is just a simple mechanical device. No matter how reasonable the structural design and how strong the material is, people can always open it by various means. The key management is very troublesome in the passage with a lot of people (such as office buildings and hotel rooms). If the key is lost or the personnel is replaced, the lock and key must be replaced together. In order to solve these problems, there have been electronic magnetic card locks and electronic combination locks. The emergence of these two kinds of locks has improved the degree of management of entrance and exit channels to a certain extent, making channel management enter the electronic age, but with these two With the continuous application of electronic locks, their own defects are gradually exposed. The problem of magnetic card locks is that information is easy to copy, the wear between the card and the card reader is large, the failure rate is high, and the safety factor is low. The problem with password locks is that passwords are easy to leak and cannot be checked, and the safety factor is very low. At the same time, since most of the products in this period adopt the card reading part (password input) and the control part to be installed outside the door, it is easy to be unlocked by people outdoors. The access control system of this period was still in the early immature stage, so the access control system at that time was often called the electronic lock, and it was not widely used.
With the development of inductive card technology and biometrics technology, the access control system has developed by leaps and bounds, and it has entered a mature period. Inductive card access control systems, fingerprint access control systems, iris access control systems, facial recognition access control systems, and finger vein recognition Access control systems, out-of-order keyboard access control systems and other technical systems have their own strengths in terms of security, convenience, and ease of management, and the application fields of access control systems are becoming wider and wider.
The main purpose of the access control system is to prevent loss and prevent crime, so it must have extremely high reliability. An access control system may not have an alarm during most of its operation, so there is no need to report an alarm. The probability of an alarm requiring an alarm is generally very small, but if the alarm system fails within this extremely small probability, Often means disaster. Therefore, the access control security system must implement reliability design (redundancy design) and reliability management at all stages of design, construction, and use to ensure high reliability of products and systems.
In addition, the system design, equipment selection, commissioning, installation and other links have strictly implemented the relevant national or industry standards, as well as the public security department's requirements for security technology prevention. The products have to undergo multiple certifications and have many typical users. , Normal operation for many years.
Access control and security systems are used to protect people and property, so the system itself must be safe. The high security mentioned here refers to the natural or quasi-natural properties of the product or system. It should ensure the safety of the operation of the equipment and system and the safety of the operator. For example, the equipment and system itself must be able to withstand high temperature, low temperature, Temperature, smoke, mold, rain, and protection against radiation, electromagnetic interference (electromagnetic compatibility), impact, collision, and drop, etc. The operational safety of equipment and systems also includes fire protection, lightning protection, explosion protection, Anti-electric shock, etc. On the other hand, the access control and security system should also have the function of preventing man-made destruction, such as: protection shell against damage, as well as tamper alarm, short circuit and open circuit.
With the continuous improvement of the requirements of various aspects of the access control system, the application range of the access control system is becoming more and more extensive. People's application of the access control system is not limited to a single entrance and exit control, but also requires that it can be applied not only to the access control, attendance management, security alarm, parking lot control, elevator control, building control, etc. of smart buildings or smart communities, but also Various control functions such as linkage control with other systems.
The earliest networked access control appeared in the 1990s. With the increasing application scope of access control system, people's demand for access control system is no longer limited to a single entrance and exit control, but requires it to have multiple control functions such as access control, attendance management, building automatic control, etc. And the remote control function has very clear requirements. However, the traditional access control is based on the RS485 communication method, the transmission distance and the number of nodes are limited, and remote control and intelligent management cannot be achieved. Networked access control based on the Ethernet transmission method came into being. It not only solves the problem of long-distance transmission, but also makes it possible for more servers and workstations to participate in management, thereby providing customers with multi-level and multi-module access control management.
In response to changes in application requirements, many access control manufacturers have launched network access control products. The so-called networked access control refers to the access control system based on TCP / IP protocol for data transmission. Both the control center server and the front-end controller use a networked structure, and the data transmission between the servers and workstations (PC) in the management system is also through the network .
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