With the development of science and technology and the rapid rise of the information age, our trading methods are rapidly changing. In daily life, we increasingly conduct transactions electronically instead of using pencil or paper or face-to-face transactions. The rapid growth of electronic transactions has prompted us to have a greater demand for accurate and fast user identification and authentication.
Bank accounts and computer systems usually use PIN access codes for security identification and inspection, which can be accessed with the correct PIN code, and cannot be accessed with the wrong PIN. When a credit or ATM card is lost or stolen, some unauthorized users will guess the correct password. And facial recognition technology can solve this problem. Even in the case of identical twins, facial recognition will accurately identify them.
Biometric identification is a unique feature of human beings, it is also measured, and can be used to automatically identify individuals or verify personal identity. Biometrics can measure the physiological and behavioral characteristics of individuals. Based on the data obtained by measuring a part of the human body, we can know the physiological biometric identification. It is based on measured values ??and data derived from actions. We can know behavioral biometrics.
Types of biometrics:
a. Finger scan b. Facial recognition c. Iris scan d. Retina scan e. Manual scan behavior
a. Voice scanning b. Signature scan c. Key scan
Why we choose face recognition technology:
Facial recognition technology does not require any physical interaction on behalf of the user. Its recognition results are accurate, a lot of information can be registered and the verification rate is also high. It does not require experts to interpret or compare the results. It can work normally with your existing hardware infrastructure, existing cameras and image capture devices. This is the only biometric technology that can perform one-to-one passive identification.
In face recognition, there are two kinds of comparisons.
1. Verification: In this system, the system compares a given individual with who the individual is talking about, and gives a judgment.
2. Identification: In this system, a given individual is compared with all other individuals in the database and a ranking list of matches is given.
All authentication or identity verification technologies use the following four stages to operate:
1. Capture: During registration and during the identification or verification process, the system captures physical or behavioral samples.
2. Extraction: Extract unique data from the sample and create a template.
3. Comparison: Compare the template with the new sample.
4. Match/mismatch: The system will determine whether the feature extracted from the new sample matches or does not match.
Capture images via standard video cameras:
The image captured by a standard video camera has optical characteristics and can be considered as a collection of a large number of bright and dark areas that represent image details. At this time, there will be a large number of picture details at the same time, and each picture detail represents the brightness level of the scene to be reproduced. Therefore, an unlimited number of channels will be needed to simultaneously transmit optical information corresponding to the pixels. It is difficult to transmit all the information at the same time, so we use a method called scanning. The conversion of optical information into electronic form and its transmission are carried out one by one in order to cover the entire image.
The work of the video camera:
Television cameras convert optical information into electronic information, the amplitude of which changes according to changes in brightness. The optical image of the scene to be transmitted is focused on the rectangular glass plate of the camera tube through the lens assembly. It has a transparent coating on the inside and a very thin layer of photoconductive material is placed on it. When no light is irradiated on it, the photovoltaic layer has a very high resistance, but it decreases according to the intensity of the light irradiated on it.
The electron beam is formed by the electron gun in the barrel of the television camera. The light beam is used to pick up the image information obtained on the target plate where the resistance of each point changes. The electron beam is mounted on a pair of deflection yokes on the glass shell and kept perpendicular to each other to realize the scanning of the entire target area.
The deflection coil is powered by two scanning oscillators, and each oscillator works at a different frequency. The magnetic deflection caused by the current in a coil causes the beam to move horizontally from left to right at a constant rate and brings it back to the left to start tracking the next line. The other coil is used to deflect the beam from top to bottom.
The resistance of the light guide coating can move the beam from one element to another, and it will encounter different resistances on the target board. The result is a current flow, the magnitude of which varies with the element being scanned. When current flows through the load resistor R1, the load resistor R1 is connected to the conductive coating on one side of the DC power supply on the other side. According to the magnitude of the current, a changing voltage appears across the resistor R1, which is the optical information corresponding to the picture.
Performance False Acceptance Rate (FAR)-The probability that the system misidentifies an individual or fails to reject an imposter. Also known as Type 2 error rate FAR = NFA / NIIA, where NFA = number of false acceptances NIIA = number of attempts by imposters
False Rejection Rate (FRR)-The probability that the system cannot identify the participant. Also known as type 1 error rate. FRR = NFR / NEIA, where NFR = number of false rejection rates NEIA = number of registrant identification attempts
The time required for the biometric system to return to confirm the sample identification decision. Decision threshold: The acceptance or rejection of data depends on whether the matching score is above or below the threshold. The threshold is adjustable, so the system can be more stringent. It depends on the requirements of any given application. Registration time: the time a person must spend to successfully create his/her face reference template.
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